NO fewer than 250 victims of snake bite have died in the last three weeks in Plateau and Gombe states, following scarcity of anti-venom drugs in the country. The figure represents confirmed deaths from three snake treatment centres— General Hospital, Kaltungo; Ali Mega Pharmacy, Gombe, and Comprehensive Medical Centre, Zamko, Plateau State.
Visits to the three medical outfits show victims in critical conditions, with some of them left on bare floors, as the doctors said they were helpless without the anti-venom. It was gathered that the snake anti-venom drugs— Echitab Plus ICP polyvalent and Echitab G monovalent— had not been supplied to the country since August, after the last vials were used up in the first week of October.
The missing anti-dotes
Echitab Plus ICP, produced at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, University of Costa Rica, treats bites from all venomous snakes in Nigeria, while Echitab G, produced by Micropharm Ltd., United Kingdom, is solely for carpet viper bites. Medics, who spoke with journalists at the three treatment centres, said the cases of snake bites were usually very common during the harvest season. “We receive an average of 50 victims every day; some arrive here in very critical conditions and we just have to watch them die because we are helpless,” Abubakar Abdullahi Aliyu, Managing Director, Aliyu Mega Pharmacy, in Gombe disclosed. He said that more than 70 victims had died in the last three weeks following the lack of anti-venom to treat them, adding that some came from Adamawa, Taraba, Bauchi, Borno and Plateau states. His words: “An average of six deaths is recorded daily. If you go to the snake treatment centre at the Kaltungo General Hospital, you will pity the victims; the lucky ones among them get supportive treatment, while many are left to their fate since the drugs are not available. “Between August and October, we received 750 victims. We were given 700 vials of the anti-venom on August 31, but we exhausted them before October. Many people are just dying. It is a major crisis.” Aliyu said the only available drug— Indian anti-venom— is not effective in the treatment of the bites from carpet vipers, the commonest poisonous snakes in the country. “We have tried the Indian anti-venom, but it does not elicit much response. Sometimes, we give six vials and more to a patient, but the effect will be minimal. If we had Echitab drugs, one dose is enough to cure a patient.”
Task for FG
The pharmacist urged the Federal Government to promptly step in to assist Echitab Study Group, the outfit coordinating the supply and distribution of the Echitab drugs, to make them available. The Snake Treatment Centre at the Kaltungo General Hospital, Gombe State, equally presented a sorry sight with helpless patients gasping for breath, while the medics watched helplessly. Dr. Abubakar Ballah, the Snakebite Treatment Officer, disclosed that the situation was “sad and scary. “We have a serious crisis here. In the last one week, 139 patients were admitted with 77 absconding when we appeared helpless, owing to the non-availability of the anti-snake venom drug. “Some were unconscious when they were brought here. Sometimes, it is corpses that are brought to us. “In the last few days, we have recorded 21 deaths. The figure is more because many of those that absconded were in bad shape; many others did not even bother to come here because of the fore-knowledge of lack of anti-venom in the centre. “The last drug was used on October 13. We try to give Vitamin K to the victims to enhance blood clotting in the absence of anti-venom because bites from the viper snakes cause bleeding, which is difficult to control without anti-venom. “It is a critical period, but we are helpless. This is why we call on the government to work with the Echitab Study Group to provide a lasting solution to this menace. “Already, some criminals are faking the drug and selling it at N43,000 per vial, contrary to the original anti-snake venom sold by the Echitab Study Group between N13,500 and N30,000. “What we must avoid is a situation where desperate people produce fake drugs. We must work toward an effective handling and supply of the drug to guarantee quality and ensure that only genuine drugs are supplied to the treatment centres.’’
Dr. Ballah urged government to treat the issue as a national emergency, adding “the need for the snake anti-venom should be seen as a security issue with its necessity equated with having an Army, Customs service, Police force and other security agencies. “The government should work with the Echitab Study Group to have a reliable supply channel; government should subsidise the cost to avoid a major crisis like the one in our hands now, because we find it difficult and embarrassing to explain the situation to our patients.” Reacting to the non-availability of the snake anti-venom drug, Dr. Nandul Durfa, Managing Director, Echitab Study Group, representative of the two companies that produce the anti-snake-venom drug in Nigeria, blamed the situation on the “late placement of order for its production.”